pdf. Techniques in large animal surgery 4 edition. Pages (hardback: alk. paper) – ISBN (PDF) – ISBN – ISBN. Rev. ed. of: Techniques in large animal surgery / Dean A. Hendrickson. ISBN (hardback: alk. paper) – ISBN (PDF) – surgery. III. Turner, A. Simon (Anthony Simon) Techniques in large animal. Turner and McIlwraith's Techniques in Large Animal Surgery, 4th Edition . References Index PDF MB Password: Help · Download.

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Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Feb 1, , James L. Carmalt and others published Techniques in Large Animal Surgery, 3rd edition. Rev. ed. of: Techniques in large animal surgery / Dean A. Hendrickson. ISBN (hardback: alk. paper) – ISBN (PDF) –. Techniques in Large. Animal Surgery. Third Edition. By. Dean A. Hendrickson. DVM, MS. Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Surgeons. Professor of.

The patient is sedated and restrained in lateral recumbency. Traction on a modified sponge forceps applied to the tip of the tongue facilitates exposure of the ventral lingual surface. A tourniquet is placed around the base of the tongue as close to the frenulum as possible, and the operative area is submucosally infiltrated with local analgesic. The elliptical incision begins a few centimetres caudal to the tip of the tongue, ends just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum, and is about 5 cm wide at its widest part in adult cattle [,]: it is important that sufficient mucosa is excised so that a convex shape of the dorsum of the tongue is produced after suturing is complete.

The wound edges are apposed with single interrupted sutures of syn- thetic absorbable material.

Turner and McIlwraith's Techniques in Large Animal Surgery, 4th Edition

The sutures must in- clude not only the mucosa but also some muscle to prevent tearing of the tissue by the sutures [,]. For hours postoperatively the patients re- ceive only water. Nearly all animals will eat im- mediately thereafter, and show no major prob- lems in prehension and mastication of food.

The deep bites of the mattress Eyelid lacerations in horses are often full-thickness, i. Usually the upper eyelid is torn the superficial bites only the skin. Either absorbable or non-absorbable []. In cases of recent laceration re-apposition and careful suturing must suture material may be used. The sutures are left in place for at least one week []. During this period Surgery. Treatment may be carried out either on the standing animal under ophthalmic antibiotic ointment may be administered twice daily.

The wound and conjunc- tival sac are flushed with physiologic saline. Sharp superficial excision of the wound edges is then carried out with a scalpel, to produce fresh, bleed- ing surfaces. Suturing is begun at the site of the palpebral margin, where a simple interrupted suture is placed [].

The remainder of the wound is then closed. Usually the conjunctiva is not sutured: in any case perforation should be avoided to prevent damage to the cornea.

The orbicularis oculi muscle and skin are sutured together, either with interrupted vertical mat- Chapter I THE H E A D I Eye i-io, i-n i-io Excision of the nictitating membrane Surgery of the third eyelid is indicated in case of tumorous growth, which in horses and cattle usually involves squamous cell carcinoma. Small neo- plasms can be removed leaving an intact nictitating membrane, but larger tumours require total excision [].

The operation is carried out on the standing or recumbent animal under local analgesia.

Williams & Wilkins

The base of the third eyelid is infiltrated with a local analgesic after instillation of topical analgesic in the conjunctival sac.

The nictitating membrane is held with a forceps and drawn from the con- junctival sac as far as possible. Complete excision deep to the cartilage is performed using a pair of curved blunt-pointed scissors []. Haemor- rhage is controlled by pressure with a gauze swab soaked in o. Ophthalmic antibiotic ointment is administered in the conjunctival sac for several days [].

The eyeball is then Enucleation of the eyeball usually includes removal of the globe together withdrawn from the orbit []. The lacrimal gland is then removed. The with the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva, the nictitating membrane and forceps is removed; haemorrhage may be controlled either by vessel lig- the lacrimal gland. The operation may be indicated in cases of eyelid or ation or packing the orbit with sterile gauze bandages. The eyelids are eyeball neoplasia, gross injuries of the eyeball e.

Surgery is carried out with the animal recumbent under either The gauze packing is removed after 2 to 3 days. Plate shows the in- general anaesthesia, or under ophthalmic nerve regional analgesia and duced artificial ankyloblepharon several months postoperatively. If possible, the upper and lower eyelids are sutured together with a continuous suture. An elliptical incision, 0. By blunt dissection in the direction of the orbita! The retrobulbar tissues and extra-ocular muscles are dissected bluntly and transected as close to the globe as possible.

In some cases the distal part of the duct is also absent. Surgery is performed under general anaesthesia. A catheter is in- troduced into the lacrimal papilla of either the upper or lower eyelid []. The catheter is then advanced carefully down the tear duct, until the tip is palpable beneath the nasal mucous membrane []. The nasal mucosa and the mucosa of the blind end of the duct are incised over the tip of the ca- theter [], after which the catheter is pushed through the opening cre- ated [].

If accessible, the mucous membrane of the duct is sutured to the nasal mucous membrane with simple interrupted sutures of fine ab- sorbable material. The catheter is then sutured to the skin in the nasal and eyelid regions, and left in place for at least two weeks. If suturing of the mucosal layers is impossible the catheter must be left in place for a longer period weeks , after which time the wound edges have healed and the opening remains patent. The whole operation may be accompanied by considerable haemorrhage, In crib-biting the horse grips a fixed object e.

The skin and subcutis are dissected upper incisor teeth, arches the neck and attempts to swallow air; horses and reflected laterally []. The omohyoideus muscle is carefully separ- which succeed in swallowing air are called windsuckers.

Some horses are ated from the jugular vein.

Atlas of Large Animal Surgery

The omohyoideus and sternohyoideus are 'free' windsuckers, these display the vice without cribbing. Initially non- transected near their insertions [] and reflected back to the caudal edge surgical methods cribbing strap, aversion therapy may be used, but are of the wound, whereafter the entire muscle section is removed [].

This often unsuccessful, and the owner requests surgical treatment. This con- exposes the cranial part of sternothyroideus [] which is easily dissected sists of partial resection of the paired ventral neck muscles: sternohyoideus, from the trachea and excised [].

Next the sternocephalicus is freed by omohyoideus, sternothyroideus and sternocephalicus. Instead of myect- blunt dissection after incising its sheath longitudinally. The muscle is tran- omy of the latter, neurectomy of the ventral branch of the accessory nerve sected at the caudal edge of the incision [], reflected cranially and se- may be performed. The horse is positioned in dorsal recumbency under general Instead of sternocephalicus myectomy, denervation of the muscle may be anaesthesia.

Excessive extension of the neck should be avoided because of performed. The purpose of neurectomy of the ventral branch of the ac- possible stretching of the recurrent nerve, the head should thus be resting cessory nerve is to diminish the post-operative deformity of the region.

The neurectomy site is proximal to the entry of the nerve into the muscle; at least 3 cm are removed []. The procedure may be carried out before or after myectomy of the other muscles. The skin is closed with in- terrupted mattress sutures.

At both ends of the wound a drain is placed. Proper functioning of the drains must be checked twice daily, and they must not be removed before 3 days. Postoperatively the horse is confined for about three weeks, and care is taken that the stall contains no objects that may be grasped with the incisors or on which the wound may be rubbed.

The double chromic catgut is threaded through the eye of the needle and pulled through the muscular process. The medial Inspiratory dyspnoea due to laryngeal hemiplegia roaring is a common part of the ligature is brought under the crycoarytenoid muscle using the clinical sign in horses requiring surgical treatment to enlarge the reduced Deschamp's needle.

The needle is then passed, from medial to lateral, laryngeal lumen [o6gA]. Many procedures to alleviate laryngeal hemiplegia through the caudal border of the cricoid cartilage, about 2 cm lateral to the have been utilized.

Of the various techniques the combination of cricoary- median ridge. The needle passes through the cartilage, but not through tenoidopexy with unilateral or bilateral ventriculectomy has given the best mucous membrane into the laryngeal lumen. The needle emerges approxi- results. Instead of lycra, a double ligature of heavy-sized chromic catgut is mately i cm cranial to the caudal border of the cricoid [].

The medial preferred for the cricoarytenoidopexy. The horse is positioned in right lateral recumbency in general cartilage []. The two ends of the ligature are tied [] with sufficient anaesthesia with the head and neck extended. Sub- A vacuum drain is placed in the wound cavity.

The subcutaneous and deep cutaneous fascia is incised with a scalpel. The dorsolateral aspect of the fascial tissues are closed with a simple continuous suture and the skin with larynx is approached by blunt dissection. The muscular process of the interrupted sutures, using synthetic absorbable material. The laryngeal cavity is opened see ; the crycoid cartilage is not incised.

The mucous membrane of the left laryngeal saccule is removed. The rim of the laryngeal saccule is incised on its caudal border [] and the index finger is brought submucosally to free and then evert the mucous mem- brane. The everted mucous membrane is resected with scissors as close to the base as possible without damaging the adjacent cartilage [].

To prevent foreign body aspiration during recovery and recuperation the skin is closed with a few non-absorbable interrupted sutures. If postoperative dyspnoea occurs a tracheotomy tube is inserted through the laryngotomy wound, or tracheotomy see is performed. Antibiotics are administered.

The vacuum drain is removed after two to three days. The laryngotomy wound is cleansed daily and heals satisfac- torily by second intention. The horse is confined to a box for 4 weeks. After two months at pasture the horse may be returned to training. To enable surgery in the area of the soft pa- sponge forceps. A Lakey traction forceps applied to the apex of the epiglot- late and epiglottis, a laryngotomy must be performed.

The surgical tech- tis retains it in position. Diagnosis is The mucosa surrounding the cyst is carefully grasped with Allis tissue for- made by endoscopic examination []. The patient is positioned in dorsal recumbency under general rounding tissue [].

Excess mucosa may be excised. The wound is left anaesthesia. A 10 cm midline incision is made over the larynx through the open. Only the skin is closed with a few non-absorbable interrupted skin and through the midline junction of the sternohyoid muscles. The sutures.

The laryngotomy wound heals by second intention. The patient is crycothyroid membrane is incised in the midline. In this condition, in- box rested for 4 weeks. A self-retaining wound retractor exposes the laryngeal cavity []. After the endotracheal tube has been removed exposure of the subepigottal cyst is possible.

The thyroid cartilage is cut with a strong pair of scissors. Topical Laryngotomy - in bovine necrotic laryngitis analgesia of laryngeal mucosa is necessary if general anaesthesia has not been used.

The laryngeal cavity is exposed by means of Volkmann retrac- Necrotic laryngitis associated with calf diphtheria is the most important tors. In most cases the. The results of medical treat- The depth of a possible fistulous tract s is determined with a probe ment are often disappointing.

The aim of surgical treatment is to excise []. After cleaning the laryngeal cavity, the skin is closed with non- the glottis. Prior to laryngotomy, a tracheotomy is performed see The Systemic antibiotics are administered. The tracheotomy tube is removed as patient is placed in dorsal recumbency under general anaesthesia, or under laryngeal swelling reduces and has less effect on respiration. If laryngeal intub- ation is impossible an endotracheal tube must be inserted via the trach- eotomy wound.

The inflated cuff prevents the passage of blood into the lungs during surgery. The skin and subcutanuous tissue are incised in the midline and the ster- nohyoid muscles are separated. The disc to be removed is grasped with lieve dyspnoea caused by acute nasal, laryngeal or proximal tracheal ob- forceps.

Tracheotomy is also indicated prior to some operations on the semi-disc of the tracheal rings proximal and distal to an incision through nose, paranasal sinuses or larynx. Tracheotomy is usually performed on the standing animal under After tracheotomy a self-retaining tube is inserted [] and the skin edges local infiltration analgesia, but may also be carried out on the recumbent are sutured around the tube in a simple interrupted pattern. Since there is patient. The head and neck of the animal are extended and an approxim- considerable mucous secretion for the first few postoperative days, the tube ately 7 cm ventral midline skin incision is made in the cranial third of the must be cleaned frequently.

Later on, when the discharge has reduced, air neck at the level of the 4th-6th tracheal ring. After incising the thin cut- passage through the tube is checked daily, but the intervals of cleaning may aneous muscle in the midline, the longitudinal junction of the sternohyoid be prolonged.

After the tube is withdrawn, the tracheotomy wound heals muscles is divided and the trachea exposed. The muscles and skin are by second intention. If temporary tracheotomy is indicated, a tracheal annular ligament is pierc- ed with a scalpel and a tracheal tube ovoid in cross-section is inserted. Its main indication is placing the sutures in the hernial ring.

The hernia is closed by tying the diaphragmatic hernia, although the technique is occasionally used in cases pre-placed interrupted sutures of non-absorbable material [,]. The patient is placed in lateral recumbency under general anaes- Reposition of the ribs is done with the help of reposition forceps.

The ribs thesia with positive pressure ventilation. Prior to tying the The thorax is approached through the left or right 8th, Qth or loth inter- last two sutures of the intercostal muscles, air must be removed from the costal space, depending on the localisation of the hernia.

Skin, subcutis, thorax by either evacuation or by inflating the lungs []. Closure of the fascia, intercostal muscles and pleura are incised in the middle of the inter- wound is completed by suturing of the fascia, subcutis and the skin with in- costal space. In young animals access to the thorax is facilitated by one or terrupted sutures of absorbable material. Systemic antibiotics are indic- two rib retractors []. In older animals, partial resection of one or two ated.

Intrathoracic drains are not routinely used, and postoperative com- ribs may be necessary. Plate shows a part of colon in the thorax of a plications have not arisen. Residual air in the thoracic cavity is resorbed horse, between the lung and diaphragm. After partial reposition of the within a few days. Transverse in- Infection of tissues in the region of the withers may be the result of traum- cisions over the withers must be avoided.

Drainage openings are kept open by gauze drains or rubber tubing bursa e. Brucellosis and invasion of the nuchal ligament with filariae [] to allow daily irrigation with a mild disinfectant until exudation Onchocerca sp. Surround- Pockets and compartments of exudate are formed between the tissues of ing skin should be protected with vaseline ointment. The tissues involved ligament, bursa, Anthelmintic drugs may be indicated, and systemic antibiotics are admin- spines of first thoracic vertebrae and the depth and direction of the tracts istered in cases of acute inflammation.

Surgical therapy consists of drainage sessions may be necessary. Short interventions and superficial incisions may be carried out on the standing animal under sedation and physical restraint. Drainage of deeper tissues demands recumbency and general anaesthesia.

Amputation is indicated in cases of hernia accreta or incarcerated hernia. Umbilical hernias may occur in all domestic animals, especially pigs, cattle The internal hernial sac is carefully incised without damaging the hernial [] and horses, and may be reducible or non-reducible. A hernia is re- contents and amputated along the edge of the hernial ring using dissection ducible if the hernial contents can be returned into the abdomen.

Hernias scissors.

The adhesions between hernial sac and hernial contents are separ- are non-reducible because of either adhesions between hernial contents and ated and the hernial contents returned to the abdomen. If it is expected internal hernial sac hernia accreta , or incarceration of viscera by the that the internal hernial sac can not be incised without damaging the hernial ring incarcerated hernia. If spontaneous recovery of the umbilical hernial contents usually in cases of incarcerated hernia , the abdomen is hernia does not occur, or in cases of incarcerated hernia, surgical correction opened in the linea alba just cranial to the hernial ring, which is then is indicated.

If incarcerated viscera appear to be Surgery.

The chapter dealing with suture materials and needles has been expanded and includes a table of commonly used suture material which is easy to read and allows rapid comparison between different suture types. Similarly the knots and ligatures section has been improved.

Advances in surgery, including arthroscopy for carpal joint surgery, laparoscopy for cryptorchidectomy, and laser techniques as they pertain to upper airway surgery are discussed. This 3rd edition has the feel of a textbook, with important underlying principles as well as the technical step-by-step descriptions of how to perform the procedures, rather than simply being a technical manual.

The illustrations, as with previous editions are a major plus. These, combined with the fact that this is a large animal surgical text not simply equine set it apart from other texts in this field and make this book well worth the download price.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Can Vet J v. Can Vet J.

Reviewed by James L.To prevent premature closure of the openings they are packed with gauze bandage plugs. The disc to be removed is grasped with lieve dyspnoea caused by acute nasal, laryngeal or proximal tracheal ob- forceps. An elliptical skin incision is made around Infection of the umbilical cord in calves may cause inflammatory processes the umbilicus and is extended paraprepudally.

After anesthetic-recovery, monitoring is often less intense but should include attention to basic biologic functions of intake and elimination and behavioral signs of postoperative pain, monitoring for postsurgical infections, monitoring of the surgical incision, bandaging as appropriate, and timely removal of skin sutures, clips, or staples UFAW New York: Academic Press.

Wright, E. Will, A. The proper use of anesthetics and analgesics in research animals is an ethical and scientific imperative. Unilateral ACL reconstruction using an autologous Achilles tendon graft and rigid button fixation was performed in group II. A continuing and thorough assessment of surgical outcomes should be performed to ensure that appropriate procedures are followed and timely corrective changes instituted.

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