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A Isiaka, Lasisi Adeiza. English rhythm. Assessing fluency vs. Improving stress Room and rhythm with the stress stretch. De Moras, Nadine. Learning L2 pronunciation French obligatory liaisons while studying vocabulary. Peer-tutoring pronunciation contrasts: A fun, effective classroom procedure. Meyers, Colleen. The straw technique: Expanding pitch range. Muller Levis, Greta.
Intonation bridging activities: Meaningful practice for final intonation. Nibert, Holly. Bringing L2 classroom pronunciation practice in line with CLT. Reed, Marnie. Teaching talk and tell-backs: The declarative to procedural knowledge interface.
Richards, Monica. Transforming any text into an individualized segmental exercise via the pronunciation highlighter. Ruellot, Viviane. French pronunciation and vowel tension. Lima, Edna. Zhuang Yuan. Staples, Shelley. Watts, Patricia. Was that a question? Applying the noticing- the-gap to help speakers recognize and use phonological features. Individualized effectiveness of ASR- based Communication intonation training with dictation practice for strategies and oral visualization feedback.
Role of interlocutor type. Durham, Kristie, Hayes- Crowther, Dustin. How is intonation in a Harb, Rachel. Barrios, Trofimovich, Pavel. The influence of Isaacs, Talia. The perceived? The effect of L1 forms of background. Factors Reed, Marnie. Lacroix, No session 1.
Metacognitive discrimination by early strategy instruction Improves and late EFL learners in L2 skills in processing aural Japan. Kang, De Moras, Nadine. Peguret, No session Okim. Ghanem, Romy. Does an early start Language proficiency and longer practice make ratings: Human versus perfect? Brinton, Levis, John.
Muller Levis, No session Donna. Spoken parentheticals — Insights from in instructional discourse: Henrichsen, Wallace, Lara. Using Google No session Lynn. Cox, Troy. Web Speech as a springboard Tanner, Mark. The role for identifying potential of pronunciation in pronunciation problems. We have divided them into sections: The reviews were not part of the conference but were done by graduate students at Iowa State University. A summary of each paper is included below.
They analyzed the e-list discussion strands and threads and showed four hot topics discussed the most: The author found that, even though participants improved their pronunciation and enjoyed the activity, they were not satisfied with their overall oral proficiency.
The study provides mixed results that both partially support and refute the claim. The authors then support a more granular approach to the LFC and give implications for further research on this issue. A semester-long project showed that strategy-based metacognitive training in connected speech, stress and intonation promotes listening skills awareness, aids word segmentation to facilitate understanding utterance context, and helps detection of marked intonation to facilitate understanding of message meaning.
Showalter investigated whether the word form learning benefit reported in Showalter and Hayes-Harb is necessarily orthographic. Text position was found to provide a benefit over other non-orthographic visual information color , as well as orthographic information tone marks. The authors suggest that orthography, while a likely contributor to a performance benefit, is not the only beneficial visual information during word learning.
The authors also call for studies that investigate the benefit of other types of visual information. Diphthongs are chosen to examine and compare the recordings of Brazilians and Americans in English and Portuguese in terms of inter-speaker, intra-speaker and inter-language.
The author supports the hypothesis that Brazilian speakers of English may have special features that might indicate their origin, and describes the current work of the project. Their automatic scoring system is reported to outperform other similar systems, and its scoring reliability is as close as inter-rater reliability of human scoring.
Based on their results, the authors also imply the most important factors and potential factors for developing and improving such an automated system.
He showed that all the substitutions occurred only in syllable onsets, but not intervocalically. The authors conducted an interpretative, perceptual and acoustic analysis of the monologic speech sample of North American English. The results show an integrated view of language and intonation, and support the idea of contextualized teaching and pedagogical use of TED Talk speech samples.
The author also suggests ways that students can capitalize on Pronunciation Highlighter output to build new and accurate segmental pronunciation habits.
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The paper includes suggested pedagogical practices as well as both the benefits and limitations of these practices. Teaching Tips In Marsha J.
The stress stretch allows students to associate a physical movement to the concept of stressed and unstressed syllables to improve their pronunciation. Students stretch in accordance with the lexical stress or prominence of target words.
This tip emphasizes the role of vowel tension when discriminating between masculine and feminine forms of definite articles of nouns, and with third person singular direct object pronoun. Lara Wallace and Edna F. The tip focuses on how to help speakers learning how to speak French with liaison rules to help with pronunciation. These liaison errors are critical in that they impede understanding through a lack of differentiation between homonyms and impeding comprehensibility due to the missing connections.
This peer-tutoring procedure places one high ability student with another lower ability student, concerning a specific topic, in the same group so that they may learn from one anther in both speaking and listening activities.
Greta Muller Levis and John Levis provide ideas for pronunciation bridging activities to practice English intonation. Bridging activities are between controlled and communicative activities, offering learners a chance to focus on pronunciation form but not completely, while paying attention to meaning, but not at the expense of accuracy. They show four ways to modify dialogues to practice intonation in ways that provide practice demanding attention to both accuracy and fluency.
English Language Learners often have language gaps that they are not aware of and do not know how to fix, but through provided metalinguistic feedback such as Teaching Talk, student Tell Backs, and Pronunciation Coaching, they can begin to make improvements. She makes the argument that individualized homework is beneficial and easier than ever to utilize through the resources available on the web.
Reviews A supplement to the Proceedings this year is a set of reviews of pronunciation books, software, websites, and apps. They are included here to provide them a wider venue. I found the types of sites and apps and books chosen by the students interesting, especially because many were not items commonly spoken of in pronunciation circles, and knowing of them might be useful to other readers of the proceedings. Insights from pronunciation practitioners. Brinton, Educational Consultant, Beverly Hills, CA What do pronunciation specialists consider to be topics worthy of discussion amongst themselves?
The authors, both members of the e-list, analyzed the e-list discussion strands and threads over the one-year period from August to August to determine the four topics that elicited greatest degree of interest, interaction, and in-depth discussion.
The hot topics of this year, summarized here, are: When learning an L2 with audio input, is written text a help or a hindrance? To what extent does pronunciation correlate with overall language proficiency? Of what importance is the vowel length distinction? Is it possible for a pronunciation instructor to teach a better pronunciation than his or her own? Can a particular music genre e. Integral to the invitational e-list discussion is the liberty to discuss issues large and small that pertain to pronunciation research and teaching, and to either participate actively i.
As members of the invitational e-list, our goal in this study is to share highlights of those topics that elicited high interest and in-depth discussion over the one- year period. In this article, we share these ideas in the interest of informing and enlightening the larger cohort of those interested in the field of pronunciation teaching and research. Research Questions For the purpose of this study, we were interested in pursuing the following questions: On an invitational e-list discussion amongst English language pronunciation specialists, which topics are of current interest?
Of these, which topics elicited the greatest amount of response and in-depth discussion from the pronunciation specialists? For the current study, our selection criteria included the following: Number of words in the discussion threads 2. Number of exchanges 3. Number of discussants 4. We eliminated this from our analysis based on our perception that the topic, while of interest to some, would not be of enough interest for the general reading public.
Do speakers of British English and American English shift stress differently? What is your reaction to the proposed new pedagogical vowel chart of English which represents vowel length in concentric rings and vowel quality in radiating spokes?
As shown in Table 1, there is considerable variation in the number of words, discussants, and exchanges among the topics that we chose to analyze. The number of total words of the four strands varies from Vietnamese speakers to contrastive analysis hypothesis, while the number of discussants ranges from 13 Vietnamese speakers and vowel charts to 8 contrastive analysis hypothesis.
As for number of exchanges, the strands range from 29 on the high end vowel charts to 9 on the low end contrastive analysis hypothesis.
A clear outlier among the topics is the contrastive analysis hypothesis, which exhibited the lowest value in terms of number of words, discussants, and exchanges. Table 1 E-list Topics Analyzed According to the Selection Criteria Topic of Words of Discussants of Exchanges Vietnamese speakers 13 23 Stress shifting in British and 12 25 American English supported or refuted the correlation between the two, respondents tended to simply state their own opinions on the importance of learners acquiring pronunciation skills and not delve more deeply into the topic or cite related research.
However, they were rejected due to their failure to fulfill the criteria of depth of discussion. Our analysis revealed three general categories of commentary: For each category, we summarize the recommendations from the e-list participants. Preparatory Elements 1. Focus on breathing and breath control, and on explosion rather than implosion. Time spent on the airstream mechanism is particularly valuable, as the implosive nature of Vietnamese is in direct contrast to the explosive nature of English.
Recognize and address the glottal stop, a common phonemic feature of Vietnamese, which is embedded in two of its six tones. The glottal stop interferes with English pronunciation, particularly in the enunciation of syllable-final consonants as well as with the connected speech features of English. This tendency for glottal stop insertion in English distracts listeners from the message.
Understanding and gaining awareness of the occurrence of glottal stops is fundamental to helping learners avoid them.
Perceptual Elements 3. Focus on auditory perception before oral production. Discussion ensued about how to get students to hear the correct pronunciation, no matter whether segmental sounds or pitch patterns.
Encourage students to hear English without looking at the written text to focus their attention on the actual sounds of the language. Sound-symbol correspondence is extremely strong in Vietnamese and therefore helpful, but considerably weaker in English and often misleading. Considering English an ear language as opposed to Vietnamese as an eye language may aid learners in framing their listening. Have students sing as a means of aiding auditory perception. See expansion below. Tackle consonants, particularly finals e.
The omission or inaccurate articulation of consonant clusters—which do not exist in spoken Vietnamese—is particularly problematic in English and worthy of attention.
Focus on English word stress, phrase stress, and pitch patterns. Avoid techniques that may backfire with learners. The discussant with a large proportion of Vietnamese learners of English shared a link to student recordings of a song used in teaching stress, rhythm, linking, and selected segmentals.
The initiator of this thread recounted how the intelligibility of one Vietnamese speaker improved after she had him sing part of a song and then speak the lyrics, focusing on the airstream mechanism. She closed with an expression of appreciation for the helpful discussion on her initial posting. Topic 2: Are there any patterns or trends? This thread began when a North American discussant who had been watching a historical documentary on the ancient Germanic tribes observed that the British female narrator of the series repeatedly placed stress on the second 7 As previously mentioned, relying on the written form was noted as a deterrent, as English orthography can confuse rather than promote proper pronunciation.
Priestess-Princess 1. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary Wells, gives stress on the second syllable of priestess as the preferred pronunciation for BrE but not for AmE. Thus, the argument continued, if the trends of princess and priestess are similar, the first syllable of both will eventually predominate in Britain, representing a generational shift.
BrE practitioner in Southeast Asia 3. The stress on princess depends on context: BrE practitioner in Britain French-English influences 4. Britons tend to stress words that look French on the last syllable while AmE tends to shift the stress forward. BrE practitioner in France 5. AmE practitioner in the US 6. This may reveal more about these two varieties of English than it does about French, which gives more or less equal stress to each syllable. BrE practitioner in Britain 7.
As French words become Anglicized, the stress moves to the first syllable. Example Set A: Example Set B: Example Set C: One would predict that, over time, all of these nouns will have initial stress. An additional factor and exception to this prediction: Example Set D: BrE practitioner in Southeast Asia 10 Dictionary. Language change has occurred over the centuries, and permit is following a trend affecting a wide range of other words.
By , a further five items were added, and by , the number was Aitchison gives recess as an example of a noun that has recently undergone this stress shift for nearly everyone in America but not everyone in Britain. Research is another word undergoing a change. Estuary English is more porous of AmE pronunciation influences than the more standard type of BrE speech. Concluding this thread, several participants predicted that with AmE leading the way, other varieties will follow this trend of shifting stress from the final to the initial syllable to create a distinction between noun and verb pairs.
Topic 3: Vowel Charts This exchange originated with a query from a pronunciation specialist proposing and seeking feedback on a new vowel sound chart. Reactions and suggestions to the chart varied, with some participants providing concrete feedback, some suggesting references to consult, others providing a global assessment either positive or negative , and yet others questioning the rationale behind the new chart: They note over pairs of words in English which have different stress patterns depending on whether they are functioning as nouns or verbs with additional instances of adjectives which have the same stress pattern as the corresponding noun.
Also, it would need to be radically revised for American English. What is gained by moving away from the conventional mouth formation related MFR chart see Figure 1 , which signals the general locations in the mouth where sound formation begins? The assignment of color in the chart appears random. Why use color? It is not useful for those who are color blind and potentially confusing for those who have synesthesia.
The diphthong in tourist is missing. Also absent from the chart is the movement associated with diphthongs. In response to the suggestions, the originator of the chart responded as follows: To avoid confusion, students could be introduced to the chart on a need-to-know basis. Admittedly, it would require substantial revision of the chart for it to represent American English. The proposed chart does; in addition to vowel length, it captures the idea of vowel quality.
It could potentially be used to reinforce the patterning of the chart. The diphthong in tourist was intentionally omitted as it has coalesced in General British with the vowel in fork.
The proposed vowel sound chart allows for regional variability. This is an advantage over the MFR chart, which situates the vowel in a fixed location and thereby implies precision of articulation. Topic 4: Comments arguing for the value of the CAH in pronunciation teaching and research included the following: Contrastive analysis is needed and valuable, if underestimated.
It may not explain all errors e. CA is a useful way of looking at the issue of transfer. There are many useful works written that apply CA cross linguistically, including work on prosody e. As an example, German final stop consonants are devoiced; hence the CAH would claim that German speakers learning English would have difficulty voicing final stop consonants.
These included: The consensus of this discussion strand is best summarized by the following comment from an e- list participant who had not been otherwise active in this discussion strand: CA if not CAH provides invaluable information. E-list participation by pronunciation specialists can yield edifying discussions. For one, such a discussion forum allows practitioners to post queries and receive feedback from a worldwide network of members with a variety of teaching environments and experience researching different aspects of pronunciation.
In addition, it brings heretofore unheard of ideas to some, while confirming and reassuring familiar ideas to others. As in our previous work, this article demonstrates the value of communication amongst practitioners on the chosen e-list. He proposes that those aspects of the second language that are more marked less dominant or regular than the first language will be the most difficult for learners to acquire i.
On the other hand, those aspects which are different but not marked will be easier to acquire. Adding a consonant e. In increasing degrees of markedness and therefore difficulty we would predict that the more marked forms beast CVCC and beasts CVCCC would be even more difficult for a learner from a CV language to pronounce.
She has presented over professional seminars and workshops at regional, national, and international conferences and at educational institutions in the USA and abroad. She is the recipient of numerous excellence awards. Author of several English language textbooks, she has created thousands of learning objects in print, audio, and video formats. As Pronunciation Doctor, she provides free instructional videos at http: Donna M. Brinton is an educational consultant based in Beverly Hills, California.
She has written and co-edited numerous professional texts and is one of the authors of Teaching Pronunciation: Donna frequently presents on the topic of practical phonetics at national and international conferences.
Language change: Progress or decay? New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Best, C. The emergence of native language phonological influences in infants: A perceptual assimilation model. Goodman and H. Nusbaum Eds. The transition from speech sounds to spoken words pp. Boston, MA: MIT Press. Brinton, D. World English, intelligibility, and pronunciation standards: What pronunciation specialists think.
Speak Out! Insights form pronunciation practitioners. Levis, R. Mohamed, M. Cruttenden, A. The learning and teaching of foreign languages.
New York: Educational Solutions. Jones, D. English pronouncing dictionary 15th ed. Cambridge, England: Eckman, F. Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Language Learning, 27 2 , English Language Training Solutions. Color vowel chart. Retrieved from http: Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. Strange Ed. Issues in cross-language research pp. Timonium, MD: York Press. Hirst, D. Intonation systems: A survey of twenty languages. Kuhl, P. Lado, R.
Linguistics across cultures. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. MacWhinney, B. A unified model. Ellis Eds. Retrieved February 19, from Dictionary. Retrieved February 19, from Merriam-Webster. English words: History and structure. Teaching the Silent Way. Interactive phonemic chart. The contrastive analysis hypothesis. Wells, J. Longman pronunciation dictionary 3rd ed.
Harlow, England: Pearson Education. Voxopop for Speaking Pronunciation and Listening [Webinar]. Retrieved from https: My Bonnie lies over the ocean. Clear speech 3rd ed. Media Mill. University of Minnesota: Minneapolis, MN. I scream - you scream - we all scream for ice cream.
I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. Pronunciation and phonetics: A practical guide for English language teachers.
Cytowic, R. The man who tasted shapes. Cambridge, MA: Hancock, M. The color and felt sense of English vowels. Vowel-color symbolism in English and Arabic: A comparative study.
Sachs, O. Tales of music and the brain.
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Corder, S. Error analysis, interlanguage and second language acquisition. Language Teaching, 8 4 , Delattre, P. Comparing the phonetic features of English, French, German and Spanish. Heidelberg, Germany: Flege, J. Peperkamp, S. Warner Eds.
Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter. Weinberger, S. Speech accent archive. Washington, DC: George Mason University. Learner English: Thomson, R. A modified statistical pattern recognition approach to measuring the crosslinguistic similarity of Mandarin and English vowels.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, , Trubetzkoy, N. Prague, Czech Republic: Cercle Linguistique de Prague. Wardaugh, R. One major finding is that the majority of the LLs contrasted themselves to native speakers and make statements of dissatisfaction with their oral proficiency or pronunciation even though the majority of LLs enjoyed the activity and felt they had improved their pronunciation.
International teaching assistants ITAs are often asked to record and imitate the speech of native-English speakers as a pronunciation exercise Goodwin, , and imitation and repetition are often proposed in teacher training materials Harmer, However, little research has been conducted on how language learners LLs take up imitation activities such as these and internalize them in terms of their pronunciation development and identity.
The purpose of this study, which consisted of a survey and an interview of seventeen students who participated in a TED Talk TT voiceover exercise in two academic communications courses, stems from the practice of advising language students to imitate native speakers of the target language to become more orally proficient speakers, particularly in terms of L2 pronunciation.
This study asks the following questions: How do LLs perceive imitation activities, in particular the specific TT voiceover imitation activity? Do LLs enjoy the voiceover activity, in particular do they perceive this activity as valuable, specifically in improving pronunciation skills?
If LLs perceive self-improvement, how do LLs utilize the learning and practice from this exercise to continue pronunciation improvement—if they do? The learners are filtered into oral classes through one of the two different assessments: In many cases, the students opt to take the course, particularly in the summer. In some cases, however, the students are recommended, and in some cases required by their departments, to continue language support classes to work on proficiency for one of the following reasons: Successful participation in content classrooms, 2.
Completion of a personal goal, such as presenting at professional conferences.
On average, the LLs are over twenty two years of age and have studied English for over ten years, are advanced learners of English, and have scores well above the minimum of 90 composite on the ibt TOEFL which is the recommended minimum for acceptance into most university departments. Almost all of the students in these courses test above the recommended score for beginning level of oral academic communication.
Initially, this research was developed to pilot the introduction of the voice-over activity and help instructors determine whether they desired to continue the voice-over activity as part of the oral academic course curriculum. In order to answer the above research questions concerning enjoyment of the voiceover exercise as well as if the participants perceive it as an activity that facilitates pronunciation improvement, graduate students in two ESL oral academic communications courses were recruited to be participants in this study.
The oral academic communications classes are skills classes; however, within this class, students focus on pronunciation and vocabulary structures as needed. In doing so, the students are asked to discuss what they think makes comprehensible and intelligible speech and communication and thusly, comprehensible and intelligible pronunciation, prior to their first presentations.
In defining comprehensibility with the students, the instructors introduce elements and examples found to be related to comprehensibility such as effective thought groups including focus within them, linking, word stress, segments, intonation and rhythm, speed, and contrastive stress.
How hard do your group members have to work in order to understand you?
These elements are also discussed as affecting communication competence in the course and especially in presentations.
The academic communications course implemented a TED-talk voiceover as part of the curriculum in The language learners LLs self-selected a talk and focused on practicing their TT during the last ten weeks of the semester. All of the students, with the exception of one, chose TTs with Native-English speakers as their models. Each student sent the instructor of the course an initial MP3 of their reading of the TT between the second and third week of the course, approximately ten weeks prior to presentation, so that the instructor could compare the initial recording to the final presentation which occurred after LLs had practiced inside and outside of the course.
Students were surveyed see Appendix A , and follow-up interviews were conducted with those students who were successfully recruited for the research. Since the students in this program are graduate students matriculated into departments, and many of these students have the expectation of eventually serving as ITAs, professional speeches were utilized as the voice- over material.
Since TTs have a variety of speakers, topics, transcripts, and closed-caption ability, but are often performed by professionals, particularly academics who are professionals in their field, the TTs were deemed an appropriate fit for voice-over materials for this particular population, a population with a majority that will most likely find itself giving academic lectures of some sort.
Language consultants native-speaking volunteers who work in the oral classes often participate in peer or pair work within classes from week two to twelve.
The LLs worked with language consultants the last few minutes of every class to discuss unknown words, stress patterns, meanings, stress, focus, thought groups, linking, and intonation of certain discourse units. LLs were asked to bring their transcripts of their chosen TT to their oral academic course to practice if time permitted at the end of every class. The LLs were also recommended to practice outside of class and were taught about shadowing.
LLs participated in class discussions of different methods for shadowing with various recording tools such as audacity, multi-track song recorder MTSR , or merely using the TED Talk and a hand-held recorder. The LLs were asked to practice shadowing, but shadowing was not mandated as the sole method of practice, as I was interested in how the LLs would choose to practice or review the TT. The LLs were video recorded while performing their voiceovers in the last week of classes.
All students were asked to view their presentations which were made available through the course site. LLs were asked to then fill out a survey and take part in an exit interview concerning the total voiceover activity. Finally, LLs underwent exit interviews that were a follow-up to the information they provided in the surveys about the activity see Appendix A.
Interviews and surveys were then partially transcribed and coded for possible shared themes or phenomena Crotty, in which the LLs constructed how they understood and enjoyed the activity. The overall perception of enjoyment versus improvement from all LLs; 2. Qualitative data from surveys and interviews that suggest the LLs compare themselves to the TED speakers; and 3.
Statements in the qualitative data from the LLs that suggest some of them did not understand elements making up the term pronunciation.
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The majority of learners enjoyed the activity; only one LL rated the activity a 1—the lowest ranking for enjoyment of this activity. Eleven LLs enjoyed the activity even more than they thought they had improved their pronunciation, and four of the LLs ranked enjoyment and improvement equally.
The learners all perceived they had improved, even if incrementally, even the LL KNW in Figure 1 who rated the least enjoyment or a 1 on the rating scale of rated his improvement as a 3 out of the rating scale , which suggests that while he did not necessarily enjoy the activity, he perceived that it helped him improve his pronunciation see Figure 1.
Participants perceived improvement vs. A final result of this research is that not all of the LLs may understand the term pronunciation and what it entails even though this term is used in the course and course objectives. In discussing this term, comprehensibility and intelligibility are targeted as goals for the course. No one marked the scale as a 5 the highest rating in terms of their improvement on pronunciation. The discourse concerning pronunciation of the LLs needs to be further unpacked, as it is unclear whether LLs do not understand that these elements rhythm, intonation, stress, etc.
Contrastively, LLs might understand these terms as comprising pronunciation, but they may have felt that they did not improve enough in all of these elements, even when they marked themselves as improving their pronunciation on the survey scale.
First, students may not understand what makes up the term pronunciation, even though the terms comprehensible and intelligible were utilized in the discussion of pronunciation prior to their first presentation, and terms such as thought groups, focal stress in thought groups, stress within words, contrastive stress, individual sounds segments , intonation, linking, speed, rhythm, and reduction were introduced and practiced in relation to the TTs.
Secondly, teachers of oral English may need to consider using more non-native speaking models in order to motivate LLs and provide guides for effective comprehensibility, not perfect pronunciation.
Non-native speaking models may assist LLs in further understanding comprehensible pronunciation and also help them to not have unrealistic expectations. LLs may not understand the term pronunciation, and the term may need to be unpacked even more, particularly as many LLs stated they improved intonation, speed, rhythm, and stress, but not pronunciation.
However, the misunderstanding of the term also may be an effect of practicing various features of pronunciation on different days i. After all, pronunciation is a complex term with many features comprising it.
While a majority of the LLs enjoyed the activity and perceive that the practice, particularly shadowing, helped them to improve intonation, stress, pitch, volume, speed, and rhythm, the LLs were also discouraged or dissatisfied with their outcomes, which may be a product of comparing themselves to native-speakers as the model—a major factor to consider in terms of language-learning identity.
Finally, teachers may need to continually revisit the growth in comprehensibility of students for continued motivation and development of proficient-speaker identity. In many ways, the activity suggests identity-shifts in terms of language use for the LLs in helping to notice gaps between their production and the models they chose, but for these advanced students, noticing the gap Schmidt, is not enough, as they are also aware that production or shifting the production to be more comprehensible is their ultimate goal.
This activity makes LLs more aware of the difficulty of advancing from noticing awareness to producing application.
While the activity raises awareness, it may be identity-impeding for LLs in perceiving themselves as proficient speakers of English. This may be achieved in two ways. First, choosing comprehensible non-native models or urging the LLs to do so may mitigate the disappointment the LLs seem to be feeling in comparing and contrasting their own production to a native-speaker model.
Secondly, using Native-speaking models, but concentrating on growth in comprehensibility for the LL, not just the final product of the presentation may be more beneficial at facilitating LLs in building identities in which they see themselves as gaining comprehensibility, not falling short of the model. Future Directions This exploratory pilot study has raised further questions.
It was proposed to merely answer a question about enjoyment and perceived improvement for LLs to decide whether to continue an activity introduced into the program curriculum. However, the following questions arose: Is this a comprehensibility exercise or an identity exercise, or both?
I originally chose it as a pronunciation exercise to work on overall comprehensibility. Are instructors establishing an unobtainable model if students utilize the native speaker for imitation activities, and how is this type of activity identity shifting, impeding, or both in helping students to perceive themselves as proficient speakers?
While this research sought to test perceptions of an activity, it became clear that the LLs, while enjoying the activity, are navigating language-learning identities, and that this activity induced the LLs to reflect upon that navigation. When she is not contemplating perception of language learners, second language acquisition, language teaching, and language teachers and their training, she enjoys running after her two spritely children, fitness, and cycling.
Her M. Currently, she is interested in helping learners become autonomous self-evaluators. She can be reached at jc9ne eservices. The foundation of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Affordances for imitation in the language classroom. Language Teaching Research, 17 4 , Mimicking American TA discourse. Beyond microteaching pp. San Francisco, Ca.: Harmer, J. The practice of English language teaching 4th edition. Pearson Longman ELT.
Henrichsen, L. Video voiceovers for helpful, enjoyable pronunciation practice. Munro, M. Foreign accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 45, Murphy, J. System, 42, The bilingual turn in SLA [Powerpoint slides]. The role of consciousness in second language learning. If you need extra space, please feel free to write on the back. Which TED talk did you choose? Why did you choose this particular TED talk?
Did you listen to the practice script? If you answer no, skip to question 9. How many times or for how long? If you practiced the activity, how did you practice?
What did you pay attention to as you practiced? If you practiced the activity, did you mute the speaker or did you follow right after the speaker? Describe your method of practice. If you practiced the activity, how did you feel as you voiced over your speaker?
If you did not practice the activity, how did you feel as you performed the talk for the class? Do you feel you improved your pronunciation from the practice script to the final presentation? If so, how? What are your thoughts about the activity? Would you like to take part in a similar activity again? Why or why not? Did you review your voice-over final TED presentation provided for you in Kultura in our collab site? If so, how many times? If you did review your presentation, how did you feel as you watched your voice coming from the TED speaker?
What adjectives would you use to describe how you felt as you watched and listened to your voice over? If you did not review your presentation, why not? Does this activity help you view yourself as a proficient English speaker?
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Other Comments: KYL Though I felt helped by practicing the speech, I realized it is still a long way to go to be a proficient English speaker to address a speech precisely. If I work hard on one thing, I can perform well. KNW I sound less emotional than I intended to. It just makes me uncomfortable. A return to confidence. Appearing in the s, this version enjoyed 30 years of near-universal popularity within the profession.
However, during the latter half of this period, linguistic researchers found a uniform lack of empirical support for the core tenets of this model. By the early s, evidence against the model became too great to ignore, launching a period of growing doubt among TESOL professionals about how to describe English rhythm. After more than three decades in this unsettled state, we can now see beyond stress timing to an alternative model of rhythm and to a return to confidence about how English rhythm works.
This guide traces the history of our growth and assembles the critical evidence underlying it. For example, note the words tend to, relatively, approximately, and in general in the following. In sentence rhythm the stressed syllables tend to occur at relatively regular intervals This uniformity is preserved when the number of syllables in each rhythm group varies; but each group occupies approximately the same amount of time Fries, , p.
This mild equivocation was acceptable because stress-timed rhythm was assumed to be a dominant, if not categorical, speech behavior in English. Now, more than 60 years later, and after this assumption has been found to be false, the tone is different.
Having described stress timing essentially as above, Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin, and Griner continue: We should note here that the distinction between stress-timed and syllable-timed languages is not universally accepted How should we describe English rhythm? What should practitioners be teaching now? This guide has been written to answer these questions and clarify the direction forward.
Kenneth Pike was a professor and gifted linguist at the University of Michigan, doing seminal work on English intonation and rhythm. Clifford Prator, Jr. The model of rhythm that arose from their work was so simple and teachable, and was stated with such authority, that it settled the matter of how to describe English rhythm for most ESL textbook writers and teachers.
Its three supporting pillars can be labeled succinctly. The second pillar concerns the timing of heavy stresses, or accents. As noted above, accents tend to recur at regular intervals so that the time between the heavy stresses—called the interstress interval—is about the same from phrase to phrase.
Although not the first to assert the regularity of heavy stresses see Jones, , p. The third pillar identifies where these heavy stresses occur in phrases: Every content word carries an accent. Our conclusion is that Prator himself is the source.
It seems likely 2 Pike defined content words as nouns, adjectives, adverbs of time, place, and manner, verbs, interrogative words, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns, and interjections. The rest are function words Pike, a, p.
An accent is a heavy stress with a pitch change. Even so, it is obvious. With a measure of overconfidence, authors repeated the three pillars of the model in virtually every pronunciation text since. When linguistic researchers examined the model, they exposed how serious the cracks were in some of the pillars assumed to support this conceptual edifice. Stress alternation. The first pillar—the presence of large swings in the prominence of syllables across a phrase—is incontrovertible. The second pillar, dealing with timing of accents, has catastrophic cracks.
Arvaniti , pp. The regular timing of accents is therefore not a pillar of English rhythm. Fries, , p. Next, the stress of going away is downgraded. Pike, a. Putting his observation about stress suppression into practice, Pike instructs teachers and students on how to use his pronunciation exercises as follows: Pronounce the following sentences rapidly and evenly Observe the suppression of normal stress on some of the nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in this rapid pronunciation.
English speakers do not accent every content word. To his credit, Prator knew his rule was not entirely adequate and struggled to improve it in the early editions of his textbook. If the rule yields an unnatural rhythm, why does Prator persist in using it in all subsequent editions of his textbook? What linguists called stress-timed rhythm and what TESOL professionals called stress- timed rhythm were not the same thing. This rule was absent from the linguistic version.
For many TESOL professionals responsible for preparing the next generation of teachers and researchers in the field, the revelation that English rhythm is not stress timed was unsettling. When they asked: What kind of rhythm does English have then? Celce-Murcia et al. Linguists did not challenge the accent-every-content-word rule directly because it had no place in their rhythm model. Their indirect challenge, however, surfaces in the examples they use and the comments they make in their research, as shown in the citations from Pike above and below.
By focusing on the timing pillar and ignoring the accent pillar, TESOL professionals gave their tacit approval to continue teaching that every content word should be accented, even though the distortion it creates is more serious than the distortion of the timing pillar. For the latter, we return to Pike. Although his emphasis on regular timing was not justified, he offers something different for the accent pillar and deserves credit for an insight that points the way beyond accenting every content word.
Throughout his writing on English rhythm, Pike provides many examples of a rhythm that he describes this way: Your writing must be clear, coherent, and correct. This book will help you do that. This book is perfectly suited for use in the classroom. The activities are carefully structured and can easily be completed in class.
The activities can also be done as homework and corrected in class. The free activities encourage them to write on their own using the controlled, structured activities as models.
The manual presents seven full-length model TOEFL iBT tests with explanations or examples for all questions, including sample essays and speaking responses. The author also offers general orientation to the new TOEFL iBT, as well as a review of academic skills, which include note taking, paraphrasing, summarizing, and synthesizing.
There is also a review of language skillslistening, speaking, reading, and writing. The book is designed for both self-study and for use in a classroom with a teacher. It covers all the question types that appear in this section of the test and provides simple explanations, TOEFLtype examples and practice exercises.
Studying the question types and doing the practice exercises will help students master the specific listening skills tested in the Listening Comprehension section of the test.
Features - Covers dialogues, extended conversations, and mini-talks. This eBook has sample essays with scores of 6. Each essay was written on one of the topics from the ETS official list. Each of the four tests includes reading, listening, speaking, and writing sections of the same style found on the actual TOEFL iBT test.
In addition, each section is designed to provide students with the look and feel of a real TOEFL iBT test in order to increase familiarity and confidence when taking the actual test.
With centers and over 1, classroom locations throughout the United States and abroad, it provides a full range of services, including test prep courses, admissions consulting, programs for international students, professional licensing preparation, and more. This contains samples corresponding to Reading,Writing,Speaking and Listening modules of the toefl test. This is useful for practising and validating your preperation for Toefl exam. This unique interactive program provides on-screen reading passages, audio listening practice, audio speaking prompts and on-screen writing practice--with authentic TOEFL questions from the test-maker.
That means it's your most reliable source for everything you need to know about the new test. Only ETS can show you exactly what to expect on the new Internet-based TOEFL test, tell you precisely how the test is scored--and give you hundreds of authentic test questions to study for practice! It's packed with everything you need to succeed on the testand help you get into the college or university of your choice!
In order to achieve a high score, you need to learn as much about the test as possible and get extensive practice to become familiar with the format and question types. The English in Action edition focuses on listening and comprehension skills. It is real English with nothing added or taken away. Listening to, and studying these interviews is an ideal preparation for listening to radio broadcasts or watching TV programs in English.
Listening to English speakers from all walks of life will improve your comprehension and confidence and help you build conversation skills. In the English in Action titles, you will meet a lot of interesting people and find that learning can be both entertaining and didactic.
The English in Action Series has already been localized into 12 major languages. Just imagine that while watching a video in a foreign language you can? Read what is being said on screen? Stop and analyze any phrase or new word? Listen to each word or phrase over and over again? Record your voice and then compare it to the original word or phrase? Listen to the phrase, write it down, and let the computer correct your spelling You will listen to and learn a language as it is really spoken by your favorite film star, by famous writers and politicians, or by leading businessmen and pop stars.
You can listen to and watch e. Jackie Collins discussing her latest novel, Bill Clinton expressing his vision for the future, Peter Sutherland debating business strategy, Kim Basinger talking about her life or even Bill Gates speaking about interactive multimedia.
Learn English from the members of the British Royal Family? In order to meet the challenge of providing a more comprehensive assessment of an applicants ability to understand and use the English language in an academic environment, the TOEFL Internet-based test iBT has been developed to assess all four language skills listening, reading, writing, and speaking.
The scoring system has changed as well. Each of the four language skills will now be reported on a scale of 0 to 30 and there will also be a total score. Note taking is allowed on the new TOEFL exam in order to better reflect real-life academic situations. Listening: Just like the computer-based TOEFL exams, this section includes short and long conversations, lectures, and classroom discussions. The practice exams include a timer to help the student practice under exam conditions.
The more familiar a student is with exam writing strategies and the types of questions found on the TOEFL iBT , the better chance there is that he or she will receive a high score. Your responses will be recorded on the computer and then reviewed later and given a score. During the test you will be asked six questions, two of which will focus on familiar topics. The other four will ask about short conversations, lectures, and reading passages. In our Practice TOEFL iBT Test Speaking section, you will be given examples of responses and the corresponding scores so you can get an idea of what is expected in this new section of the exam.
Reading: There are nine different types of questions in the TOEFL Reading section that range from inserting a sentence into a paragraph to reading a piece of the text to identify the purpose of the passage. Writing: The new Writing section now includes two writing tasks instead of just one.
There is an integrated task combining listening, reading, and writing in addition to the current independent task, and typing is required. In our practice exam you will be given examples of written responses and the corresponding scores so you can get an idea of what is expected in this section of the test.
The author presents a simple three-step program to help students write like a native speaker of English. His coaching entails getting ideas, organizing details, and developing the topic into clear, grammatical written English. He also provides exercises in proof reading and editing to transform the writing for both Tasks into a finished piece.
Using an integrated skills approach that mirrors the structure of the TOEFL iBT, this fully revised text is ideal for classroom use and self-study.
The book contains hundreds of skill-building exercises covering all of the question types in the exam and four practice tests. A supporting skills section is provided to improve grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and study skills.
The audio program, available on Audio CDs or Audio Cassettes, contains conversations, lectures, and all listening material for all listening exercises and test questions. By using the strategy called argument mapping. Why argument mapping? That means if you want high speaking and writing scores, you must know how to map out develop and deliver spoken and written arguments, quickly and proficiently.
With argument mapping, you will be able to do just that. Best of all, you can apply argument mapping to all six speaking tasks and both writing tasks. That means you will spend less time reading about strategies and more time practicing them. And the essay, also known as the Test of Written English, is the hardest part of the test-one that keeps many test takers from succeeding.
Ace the TOEFL Essay TWE gives you simple and clear instruction on what you need to know to score well and provides real essay samples that you can relate to Youll get the lowdown on what you need to score high in an easy-to-understand format, with everything from lessons on punctuation to real sample essays, plus more than 50 pages of exercises. It is now completely computer-based; it's longer; and it has mandatory Speaking, Listening, and Writing sections.
Cracking the TOEFL iBT provides the most comprehensive information available about how to succeed on the exam, complete with an audio CD and full transcript, full-length practice test, and scores of drill questions. In Cracking the TOEFL iBT, The Princeton Review will teach you how to Use our preparation strategies and test-taking techniques to raise your score Focus your reading and listening to identify the key parts of passages, lectures, and conversations Improve your command of spoken English and your use of good English grammar and vocabulary Write top-scoring essays by responding to the specific question asked and organizing your ideas clearly Test your knowledge with review questions and practice drills for each topic covered All of our practice test questions are just like those on the actual exam, and we explain how to answer every question.
Qua n bn ny, cc bn s lm quen vi hnh thc thi trc tuyn hin i nht. Ni dung sch gm 4 phn chnh: nghe, ni, c, vit vi c c hng dn, v d cho tt c cc cu hi, li khuyn ca tc gi v b Audio CD i km gip ngi hc rn luyn nhng k nng cn thit theo tng cp.
The recordings include over sample conversations and lectures, as well as over 40 sample responses for speaking tasks. CDs 1 to 6 cover the exercises and review tasks from the listening section; CDs 7 and 8 include therecordings and sample responses from the integrated speaking section; CD 9 contains recordings necessary for the integrated writing section; and CD 10 contains the recordings for the listening, speaking and writing sections of the practice test.
Cracking the TOEFL with Audio CD, Edition includes numerous practice opportunities so that students can sharpen their performance on English idioms as well as hard-to-grasp grammar rules and concepts.
Also included with this book is an audio CD with listening exercises. In this second level of the series, intermediate learners will be able to familiarize themselves with question types found on the TOEFL iBT while covering a variety of disciplines.
In addition, learners can practice their skills in all four test areas: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Each book provides comprehensive coverage of the designated skill and offers learners extensive practice. File size: 2. What is the meaning of your name? Does your name affect your personality?
Tell me something about your hometown. What are the differences in accent between your hometown and Hanoi? What is the character of the people like in your hometown? What is people's favourite food in the region where you live? Do you think that people have enough time for leisure now? Are there any historic monuments in your region? Describe your Job?
How do you spend your typical day? Tell me something about the Hue Festival. How have weddings changed in recent years? Describe a traditional wedding ceremony. Name a person whom you admire? Are there any traditions concerning the birth of a baby? How did you get to this place? What place do you like best in Hanoi? What places in Delhi should a foreigner visit? If you had the choice, where would you choose to live in India?
Which parts of India would you recommend a foreigner to visit? Tell me something about your family. Which is your favourite colour? Do you think colours influence our life?Nadia Um. Intensive pronunciation clinic: The telephone rings. What are your thoughts about the activity? Dansereau, D. The model of rhythm that arose from their work was so simple and teachable, and was stated with such authority, that it settled the matter of how to describe English rhythm for most ESL textbook writers and teachers.
Ni dung sch gm 4 phn chnh: nghe, ni, c, vit vi c c hng dn, v d cho tt c cc cu hi, li khuyn ca tc gi v b Audio CD i km gip ngi hc rn luyn nhng k nng cn thit theo tng cp. If you had the choice, where would you choose to live in India? How do you spend your typical day?
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