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Commensalism may grade into mutualism Figure 2. Some mutualistic relationships become obligate; neither can survive without the other Figure 2.
Competition between two species reduces the fitness of both; asymmetric competition affects one species less than the other species. Competition and Resource Partitioning 1. Competition occurs when two or more species share a limiting resource.
However, if the resource is not in short supply, sharing the resource does not produce competition. Competitive exclusion is the principle that no two species will occupy the same niche for a long time; eventually one will exclude the other. To coexist, two species can specialize by partitioning a shared resource and using different portions.
This specialization involves resource partitioning; the morphology or behavior of a species shifts; they do not compete with each other directly Figure 2. When two or more species reduce niche overlap to share the same general resources, they form a guild Figure 2.
Predators and Parasites 1. Many animals and plants are in co-evolutionary relationships; each is in a race with the other. If a predator relies primarily on a single prey species, the populations cycle with each other.
The time lag between cycles is demonstrated by laboratory work with ciliates and the snowshoe hare and lynx Figure 2. The predator-prey relationship has led to development of mimicry, where harmless species mimic models that have toxins or stings.
A keystone species is so critical to a community that its loss causes drastic changes in the community Figure 2. Keystone species reduce competition and allow more species to coexist on the same resource. Periodic natural disturbances also allow more species to coexist in diverse communities.
Ectoparasites not only secure nutrition from their host but are also dispersed by the host. Endoparasites have lost ability to choose habitats and must have tremendous reproductive output to ensure that some offspring will reach another host.
Trophic Levels and Food Webs Figure 2. Energy flows through organisms and is used to construct and maintain organisms at several levels. Primary producers, usually green plants, fix and store energy, usually from sunlight.
Herbivores are the first level of consumers that eat plants. Carnivores eat herbivores forming a second level of consumer or eat carnivores forming higher trophic levels. The most important consumers are decomposers, mainly bacteria and fungi, that break dead organic matter into mineral components, returning it to a soluble form that can be reused by plants to start the cycle over again. Chemical cycle is endless through the system.
However, energy is lost as heat and must constantly be replenished; ecosystems are open systems. Energy Flow 1. Every organism has an energy budget and must obtain enough energy to grow, reproduce, etc. How energy is obtained by organisms establishes trophic levels. Trophic levels are then linked to form food chains and into larger food webs. Gross productivity Pg is total energy assimilated or taken-in; some is used to maintain metabolism. The energy budget of every animal is finite; growth and reproduction can only occur after metabolism is accomplished.
Much energy is lost when it is transferred between trophic levels in food webs.
The Eltonian pyramid Figure 2. A pyramid of biomass Figure 2.
Biomass is usually pyramidal and solves the small insect—large plant dilemma. A biomass pyramid may still be inverted due to food stored in a consumer over time as well as failure to measure the rapid productivity of some producers. Energy pyramids encompassing the lifespan of all organisms involved show a pyramid relationship Figure 2. From to , dense communities were first discovered on sea floor thermal vents.
The producers in these vent communities are chemoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide. The tubeworms and bivalve molluscs form trophic communities that rely on this nonphotosynthetic source of nutrients 5 D.
Nutrient Cycles 1. Decomposers feed on the remains of animals and plants and return substances to the ecosystem. Biogeochemical cycles involve exchanges between living organisms, rocks, air and water. The continuous input of energy from the sun keeps nutrients flowing and the ecosystem functioning Figure 2.
Water, carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen are important biochemical cycles. Synthetic compounds such as pesticides are not degraded by decomposers. Pesticides accumulate in top carnivores, kill nontarget species, and persist in the environment. Biodiversity and Extinction 1. The number of species that thrive on earth is biodiversity; this number could be as high as 10 million.
At rates unprecedented in human history, we are losing biodiversity, genetic diversity, and habitat diversity. Habitat fragmentation and invasive species introductions are leading causes of decreased biodiversity. Lecture Enrichment 1.
The mathematics of population growth is a traditional area of difficulty for biology students more accustomed to hands-on organisms than abstract mathematics.
Mathematics is also not a regular part of everyday biology lectures and requires a systematic presentation with close association with real examples. In enzootic diseases such as bubonic plague, the wild rodents of southeast Asia are more immune to the disease than are rodents in India, and rodents in Europe and the Americas are most susceptible. This provides a way to reconstruct the evolutionary history because the longer the parasitic relationship remains stable, the more benign the effect because the more resistant hosts have greater survivorship.
It is important not to extend food chain economy to political conclusions not justified by real conditions. The example of eating beef versus eating the grain that could be fed to beef to produce the biomass of meat is a useful teaching example. However, it is not possible to feed pure grain alone to a cow it would kill it nor are most cattle fed primarily on grain. Indeed, much beef is produced on grasslands that cannot be plowed for grain production. Indeed, the meat produced in China is virtually all produced on marginal resources and ending meat consumption there would result in no grain savings and would drop national nutrition levels dramatically.
The annual sunlight that strikes the earth and the proportion that enters the food chain via photosynthesis limit the energy budget for the earth.
Therefore, it is possible to calculate the theoretical maximum of plant tissue, and therefore animal tissue, that the earth can support.
Rural students may recognize putting up hay as harvesting biomass; any student who has mowed a lawn has likewise harvested biomass although both cases fail to account for the substantial belowground root biomass. Concepts of energy and mass may be very limited by the limited amount of physics in the U.
Ecology is studied as a hierarchy of biological systems. It is necessary to understand the physiological and behavioral mechanisms of organisms to understand their ecological relationships 5.
When organisms live together with others of their species, this population has properties that cannot be discovered by studying individuals alone. Populations of many species occur together in complex communities. Variation and evenness of distribution within a community is measured as species diversity.
Many species have relationships such as predator-prey and parasite-host associations. Competition occurs when food or space becomes limited. Mutualism occurs when both members of a pair benefit from their interactions. Larger units or ecosystems allow study of the community and the physical environment.
Environment and the Niche 1. Physical, or abiotic, factors include space, energy forms including sunlight, heat, wind and water currents, and the soil, air, water and chemicals Figure 2. Biotic factors include other organisms as food, or competitors, predators, hosts or parasites. Resources include space or food utilized directly by the animal.
Some resources are expendable; food, once eaten, is no longer available and must be continuously replenished.
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Space is not consumed by being used and is therefore nonexpendable. Niche See Page 40 a.
The life requirements of an organism define its niche. These limitations for living and reproducing can be graphed. Addition of important factors such as salinity or pH describes a complex multidimensional niche Figure 2. Some animals are generalists with wide niches; they can tolerate a wide range of salinity or eat a wide range of foods.
Other animals are specialists and have narrow dietary requirements Figure The fundamental niche describes its potential to live within a wider range of conditions.
The realized niche is the narrower subset of suitable environments where it actually occurs Figure 2. Populations 1.
Population Factors 1 a. A population is a potentially reproductively interactive group of animals of the same species. Local disjunct populations that do actually interbreed are demes and they share a gene pool.
A metapopulation refers to a population subdivided into multiple genetically interacting demes. Migration among demes provides some evolutionary cohesion among this species. Demography is the study of the age structure, sex ratio, and growth rate of a population.
Sponges, corals, and bryozoans are modular, consisting of colonies of identical organisms, often through asexual cloning. It is easier to count and measure individual or unitary animals than colonial organisms.
Some unitary organisms such as the praying mantis reproduce by parthenogenesis. Most metazoans are biparental; reproduction begins a cohort of individuals born at the same time. Survivorship defines the age pattern of a population from birth to death of the last member Figure 2.
Population Growth and Intrinsic Regulation Figure 2. Population growth is the difference between rates of birth and death. Populations have the ability to grow exponentially at the intrinsic rate of increase, symbol r.
This forms a steeply rising curve. Unrestricted growth cannot occur unchecked for either bacteria or field mice. A growing population eventually exhausts food or space; planktonic blooms and locusts outbreaks both stop when resources are exhausted.
Among many resources, one will be depleted first; this is the limiting resource. The largest population that can be supported by the limited resource is the carrying capacity K. A population slows its growth rate in response to diminishing resources. Sigmoid growth occurs when there is negative feedback between growth rate and density.
The Logistic Growth Curve 1 N represents the number of organism, t represents time, and r is the intrinsic rate of increase, measured as the difference between birth and death rates at any instant. Oscillations 1 As the carrying capacity of an environment changes over time, a population must change its density to track the limiting resource.
Carrying Capacity of the Human Species 1 Humans have the longest record of exponential population growth Figure 2.
Extrinsic Limits to Growth a. Density-independent Factors 1 Abiotic factors reduce populations by floods, fires, storms and severe climate fluctuations. Density-dependent Factors 1 These are biotic factors that do respond to the density of the population.
Community Ecology A. Interactions Among Populations in Communities 1. In a community, populations of different species interact. The number of species that share a habitat is known as species diversity. Species interactions may benefit or harm the species involved. In a predator-prey interaction, the predator is benefited and the prey is harmed. Herbivory benefits the animal and harms the plant. Parasitism benefits the parasite and harms the host.
In commensalism, one species is benefited and the other is neither benefited nor harmed Figure 2. Commensalism may grade into mutualism Figure 2.
Some mutualistic relationships become obligate; neither can survive without the other Figure 2. Competition between two species reduces the fitness of both; asymmetric competition affects one species less than the other species. Competition and Resource Partitioning 1.
Competition occurs when two or more species share a limiting resource. However, if the resource is not in short supply, sharing the resource does not produce competition. Competitive exclusion is the principle that no two species will occupy the same niche for a long time; eventually one will exclude the other. To coexist, two species can specialize by partitioning a shared resource and using different portions. This specialization involves resource partitioning; the morphology or behavior of a species shifts; they do not compete with each other directly Figure 2.The basic features of each group are discussed, along with evolutionary relationships among group members.
If a predator relies primarily on a single prey species, the populations cycle with each other. The fundamental niche describes its potential to live within a wider range of conditions. To coexist, two species can specialize by partitioning a shared resource and using different portions.
Many other nonintended species can be affected as well. Carnivores eat herbivores forming a second level of consumer or eat carnivores forming higher trophic levels.
The sponge constitutes an animal that is "modular" due to cloning. Nutrient Cycles 1.